Control of Cracking in Concrete
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Control of Cracking in Concrete
#1
Control of Cracking in Concrete State of the Art

Size: 1.99 MB | Format: PDF | Publisher: TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD | Year: 2006 | pages: 56

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Causes of Cracking oncrete structures do not frequently fail due to lack of strength, rather due to inadequate durability or due to improper maintenance techniques. The most common cause of premature deterioration is attributed to the development of cracks (Mehta, 1992; Hobbs, 1999). Cracking can occur in concrete pavements and structures for several reasons that can primarily be grouped into either mechanical loading or environmental effects. It should also be noted that for most practical structures, reinforcement is used to bridge and hold cracks together when they develop, thereby assuring load transfer while adding ductility to a relatively brittle material. Therefore not all cracking causes concern. Reinforced concrete elements are frequently designed on the assumption that cracking should take place under standard loading conditions (Nilsson and Winter, 1985; Nawy, 2000). For example continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP) are designed with longitudinal steel in an amount adequate to hold shrinkage cracks tight, while joints exist only at locations of construction transitions and on-grade structures. In this pavement type wherein shrinkage cracks develop over time and stabilize over the first 3 to 4 years, cracking in the transverse direction in specific patterns is not detrimental to the structure as long as the cracks remain tight and retain good load transfer. Therefore, cause of cracking should be carefully identified to determine which cracks are common and acceptable and which cracks merit repair or further investigation. Several guides currently exist to assist in determining the cause of cracking including the American Concrete Institute (ACI) committee reports “Guide for Making and Condition Survey of Concrete in Service” (ACI 201-92) and “Causes, Evaluation and Repair of Cracks in Concrete Structures” (ACI 224-R93). Mechanical loads induce strains that can exceed the strain capacity (or strength capacity) of concrete, thereby causing cracking. Concrete may be particularly susceptible to cracking that occurs at early-ages when concrete has a low tensile capacity (Kasai, 1972). If the loads are applied repeatedly or over a long period of time, fatigue and creep can affect the strain (or strength) development that can lead to failure (Bazant and Celodin, 1991) or reduce stresses (Shah et al., 1998). Although numerous factors influence whether concrete would be expected to crack due to environmental effects, it can be simply stated that cracking will occur if the stress that develops in response to internal expansion or the restraint of a volumetric contraction that results in stress development exceeds the strength (or fracture resistance) of the material. Internal expansion is primarily caused by chemical attack or freezing of the pore water while volumetric contraction is typically attributed to moisture changes, chemical reactions, and thermal changes.

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#2
Control of Cracking in Concrete: State of the Art

Author: Transportation Research E-Circular | Size: 1.99 MB | Format: PDF | Quality: Original preprint | Publisher: Transportation Research Board | Year: 2006 | pages: 56

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Concrete is a quasi-brittle material with a low capacity for deformation under tensile stress. Mechanical loading, deleterious reactions, and environment loading can result in the development of tensile stresses in concrete. These tensile stresses all too frequently result in cracking that can adversely affect the performance of concrete. However, the potential for cracking can be minimized by appropriate precautions in design, materials and proportions, and construction practices. These precautions will ensure that concrete can be used satisfactorily for an extended period of time without any significant loss of aesthetics, service life, safety, and serviceability. This circular discusses causes of cracking, testing, and ways of minimizing strains and stresses that can cause cracking in transportation structures: namely bridge structures, pavements, and footings. It is intended for anyone interested in controlling cracking for cost-effective and long-lasting transportation structures.

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