Design Loading for Deeply Buried Box Culverts
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Design Loading for Deeply Buried Box Culverts
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Design Loading for Deeply Buried Box Culverts



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  • Author(s): Kyungsik Kim & Chai H. Yoo
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    Abstract:
    Cast-in-place or precast reinforced concrete box culverts are widely used throughout the world to provide safe and relatively economical structures for the conveyance of water, vehicles, utilities or pedestrians. Although the single cell or multi-cell box culverts are rather simple structures, the loadings applied to these structures during their construction and subsequent service life can be complex. These structures are subjected to substantial vertical and lateral earth pressures, and are often SUbjected to significant temporary loadings during the construction of the embankment. In spite of the complex nature of the loading around these structures, simple routine design procedures would be highly desirable if they could be made possible.When the relative settlement of the soil prism directly above the structure is greater than that of the adjacent soil prisms, as in trench installations, the layers of soil in the central prism are subjected to a reverse arch shape defonnation and consequently the earth pressure on the structure is reduced by the amount of the shearing forces exerted to the central soil prism.Likewise, when the relative settlement of the soil prism directly above the structure is less than that of the adjacent soil prisms, as is usually found in embankment installations, the layers of soil on the central prism are subjected to an arch shape defonnation and the earth pressure on the structure is increased. Although Marston[I,2] and Spangler[3,31,32] successfully quantified these phenomena by solving differential equations based on the equilibrium conditions of a simplified free body of prisms, an opportunity exists to revisit the problem using the modern-day numerical techniques made possible by the development of finite element methods

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