Papers about space grid strucutures
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Papers about space grid strucutures
#1
Papers about space grid strucutures (journal Engineering Structures)

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1. Behaviour of curved and continuous compression members
Zien-El-Dina, Ahmed El-Sheikh, and Fraser Smithb


Engineering Structures
Volume 24, Issue 12, December 2002, Pages 1499-1507 doi:10.1016/S0141-0296(02)00069-X

Abstract
Several modern lightweight space structures utilize curved and continuous compression members, although the behaviour of these members is not well understood. In many cases, the members are subjected to eccentric loading, which creates another difficulty in predicting their behaviour. Understanding the behaviour of curved and continuous members is certainly essential for the accurate modelling of the structures that use them, and for the reliable prediction of their strength, ductility and overall performance. The generic study presented in this paper uses theoretical and nonlinear numerical analyses to quantify the effect of curvature, continuity and load eccentricity on the behaviour of compression members. The work, although fundamental in nature, is of significant benefit to practical designs involving curved compression members.



2. Design problems of long span spatial structures
M. Kawaguchi


Engineering Structures
Volume 13, Issue 2, April 1991, Pages 144-163 doi:10.1016/0141-0296(91)90048-H

Abstract
Long span spatial structures impose on us various problems when we design them. They are very often technological, but are sometimes aesthetic ones. The problem of how to express structural rationality in the buildings we design is first discussed. The criteria given by modernistic forerunners such as Eduardo Torroja are examined.
A technological problem in the design of hanging roofs, that is, how to deal with big tensile forces at the ends of hanging members is next discussed. Possibilities of their transmission to the corners of a one-way hanging roof are pursued, and a semi-rigid hanging roof system without backstay is proposed.
Design problems of space frames are finally discussed. A new interpretation of space frames that automatically explains special features of this kind of structures is given, and a new structural system the Pantadome system which has been applied to long span space frames is described.

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3. Effects of member buckling and yielding on ultimate strengths of space trusses
Yang, Chien-Tai YangTa-Peng Chang and Ping-Kun Chang


Engineering Structures
Volume 19, Issue 2, February 1997, Pages 179-191 doi:10.1016/S0141-0296(96)00032-6

Abstract
Space trusses represent one type of structure whose ultimate loading capacity cannot be solely determined from linear analysis. In comparison with the large amount of research on the geometric nonlinear behaviours of space trusses, relatively little work has been conducted on the effects of member buckling and yielding. In this study, constitutive laws that consider these effects are first derived for a hinged bar. Such constitutive laws are then included in an incremental-iterative procedure for tracing the postbuckling responses of space trusses, based on a rigorous, updated, Lagrangian formulation. From the numerical studies, it is concluded that the buckling of individual members can result in drastic reduction of the ultimate loading capacity of space trusses. The effect of member yielding, however, tends to affect the duration of the elastic range in the postcritical stage for most structural steels.


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#2
3 new articles about space structures from Journal of Constructional Steel Research
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1. Advanced analysis and design of spatial structures
Journal of Constructional Steel Research
Volume 42, Issue 1, April 1997, Pages 21-48
Abstract

Modern limit-state design codes are based on limits of structural resistance. To determine the ‘true’ ultimate load-carrying capacity of spatial structures, an advanced analysis method which considers the interaction of actual behaviour of individual members with that of the structure is required. In the present work, a large-displacement inelastic analysis technique has been adopted to compute the maximum strength of spatial structures considering both member and structure instability. The actual behaviour of individual members in a spatial structure is depicted in the form of an inelastic strut model considering member initial imperfections as ‘enlarged’ out-of-straightness. The maximum strength of the strut is computed based on a member with ‘equivalent out-of-straightness’ so as to achieve the specification's strength for an axially loaded column. The results obtained by the strut model are shown to agree well with those determined using plastic-zone analysis. The nonlinear equilibrium equations resulting from geometrical and material nonlinearities are solved using an incremental-iterative numerical scheme based on generalised displacement control method. The effectiveness of the proposed advanced analysis over the conventional analysis/design approach is demonstrated by application to several space truss problems. The design implications associated with the use of the advanced analysis are discussed.
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2. Influence of joint eccentricity and rigidity on the load capacity of a space truss sub-assemblage
Journal of Constructional Steel Research
Volume 1, Issue 4, September 1981, Pages 16-22
Abstract

Experimental testing of bolted and welded space truss sub-assemblages with large joint eccentricities has displayed satisfactory performance. Tests have been carried out on five sub-assemblages from a double layer (plate-like) space truss configuration. The distinctive features of the configuration employed were chord member continuity and the resulting large joint eccentricities. The particular layout adopted furnished orthotropic behaviour for stiffness and strength, so two sub-assemblage configurations were adopted. To provide control and comparisons a welded concentrically jointed sub-assemblage was tested in addition to the bolted and welded sub-assemblages. Although the large joint eccentricities reduced sub-assemblages stiffness and peak load capacity, the continuity of chords largely offset these reductions even when bolted joint details were used; for the welded joint cases peak load capacities were at least 50 per cent higher again. The stiffness of such systems is seen to be sensitive to member and joint imperfections, and joint slip.

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3. Tubular space trusses with simple and reinforced end-flattened nodes-an overview and experiments
Journal of Constructional Steel Research
Volume 61, Issue 8, August 2005, Pages 1025-1050
Abstract

The use of tubular space frames made of continuous chord members has substantially increased over the last few years. This growth is mainly due to lower fabrication costs and high erection speed associated with these structural systems. The chord members are usually made of cold-formed shapes or tubes. The connection between the chords and diagonal members is commonly made by staking end-flattened diagonal members over the chords linked by a single large diameter bolt. In spite of this fact, the actual structural behaviour of these connections is still not fully understood. This paper describes six full-scale tests performed on spatial structures to investigate their structural response. Based on these experiments, the structural behaviour, up to collapse, of simple eccentric and reinforced eccentric nodes was discussed. A study of structural reinforcements, created to improve the structural load carrying capacity and minimise deflections, is also one of the main foci of the present paper.

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#3
Papers about space grid strucutures

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3 new articles about space structures
1. Experimentally analyzed stability and ductility behaviour of a space-truss roof system
Attila Fülöp, Miklós Iványi
Thin-Walled Structures
Volume 42, Issue 2, February 2004, Pages 309-320
Cold Formed Structures: Recent research advances in Central and Eastern Europe

Abstract
A space-truss roof-system [1], was experimentally analysed to determinate the behaviour of this system until collapse. The main aim of the investigation to find what is the stability and ductility behaviour of this system under eccentric and concentric force and to investigate an adequate moment-rotation function to model the behaviour of the truss connections as semi-rigid joints in the numerical model.
A symmetrical space-truss section was examined. This system contains thin-walled hollow squared sections as truss bars, and every bar has uniform length. In every joint eight bars are connected by high-strength pre-stressed bolts. Inductive transducers measured the deflections of joints, and strain gauges measured the strains in the investigated bars. Four strain gauges were in the mainly tension members and eight strain gauges were in the mainly compression members, each end of the bars.
This paper deals with the detailed investigation of this roof system during the “elastic” range and the collapse.

2. Limit analysis of space grids
M. Grioorian
International Journal of Solids and Structures,
Volume 11, Issue 3, March 1975, Pages 295-304

Abstract
The paper presents generalized, unique solutions for the limit design of pin-connected, double-layer space grids of regular construction, simply-supported along the sides of a rectangle and carrying a uniform concentration of normal nodal loading applied to the upper layer of the structure. The principal assumption upon which the foregoing results are obtained is that member forces increase monotonically with the applied loads, therefore insuring against the inducement of higher than ultimate loads in the compressive elements at anytime prior to structure failure. The virtual work method of the plastic analysis has been employed in conjunction with the techniques of the finite difference calculus to study the various collapse modes of the system. The work is concluded with an illustrative example to demonstrate the simplicity of the proposed solutions.

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3. Nonlinear analysis of lattice structures
S. Kitipornchai, F.G.A. Al-Bermani
Journal of Constructional Steel Research,
Volume 23, Issues 1-3, 1992, Pages 209-225

Abstract
The paper describes a nonlinear analytical technique developed by the authors in recent years for predicting the structural response of large scale lattice structures. This type of structure is generally more sensitive to imperfections; hence, the analysis method needs to consider the various nonlinear effects. Sources of nonlinearity affecting the ultimate behaviour of lattice structures include geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity, joint flexibility and slippage. Geometric nonlinearity can be accounted for by incorporating the effect of initial stress as well as geometrical variations in the structure during the loading process. For large scale lattice structures, the material nonlinearity can be incorporated by using the lumped plasticity model, while the effect of joint flexibility can be incorporated by modifying the tangent stiffness of the element using an appropriate moment—rotation relation for the joint. The nonlinear formulation has been applied to a number of example problems selected to demonstrate the applicability and versatility of the method.

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#4
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3 new papers about space structures
1. Failure mode and strength of space truss compression chord members
Engineering Structures
Volume 21, Issue 5, May 1999, Pages 395-405


Abstract
A number of new space truss systems employ continuous and eccentric chord members. The present paper is intended to provide
a better understanding of the effect of load eccentricities on the truss member performance, especially those in compression. Special
emphasis is given in this paper to channel sections and rectangular hollow sections for being the most commonly used in the new
truss systems. These sections are analysed algebraically, then underwent a series of parametric studies designed to assess their
performance in various situations and to establish their best shape and working conditions. The results can be of significant benefit
to the design procedure of space trusses with continuous and eccentric chord members.

2. Effect of force limiting devices on behaviour of space trusses
Engineering Structures
Volume 21, Issue 1, January 1999, Pages 34-44


Abstract
Earlier research on space trusses has identified their tendency to collapse in a brittle manner upon the buckling of a number of
critical compression members. In an attempt to alter the brittle post-buckling characteristics of truss compression members, and
hence introduce overall truss ductility, force limiting devices can be used. These devices are fitted to critical compression members,
and designed to provide a pure elastic–plastic behaviour with a long plateau of member ductility. The present study has been
carried out to assess the effect force limiting devices can have on truss overall behaviour, and to determine where they should be
used in order to achieve the best benefit. Typically, a compromise has to be struck between the improvement to structural behaviour
associated with these devices and the cost addition caused by their use; in most circumstances, the use of force limiting devices
is limited to a small selection of the most critical compression chord members.

3. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED TRUSSES
Computers & Structures
Volume 43, Issue 4, 17 May 1992, Pages 741-744


Abstract
This paper is concerned with the effect of prestress on the minimum weight design of singly
loaded trusses which are required to satisfy stress constraints. Use is made of realizability theorems to
derive two distinct formulations--the equilibrium formulation and the hybrid formulation, in a linear
programming form. The former has the member forces as unknown variables whereas the latter searches
directly for the prestressing system and calculates the member forces a posteriori. A 72-bar double layered
grid is used as an example to show weight savings of up to 37%.




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#5
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AN ORIGINAL TYPE OF
STEEL SPACE TRUSS NODE JOINT

Abstract. In the paper is presented experimental analysis of an original type of node joint
for a steel space truss. The joint sample was loaded by spatial set of forces that simulate
real condition of the structure with eight balanced member forces (4 chord and 4
diagonal members), up to structure failure. It was realized in a specially designed test
facility. Tested node joint samples were made in real scale, according to the model
originated after FE analysis and optimization. Basic idea was to construct and test a node
joint that can be made in average technology conditions, without special tools and
requirements. Besides, results of a stress-strain FE analysis are presented and
comparison of the two analyses is given for the most critical regions of the node joint.
Values of measured and calculated strains across model samples and characteristic
measuring points are presented.

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#6
1. Analysis and experiment for the formation and ultimate load testing of a hypar space truss
Journal of Constructional Steel Research
Volume 62, Issues 1-2, January-February 2006, Pages 189-193


Abstract
This paper discusses the behavior of post-tensioned space trusses with the hypar (hyperbolic paraboloid) shape, and the ultimate load test that was performed on one such structure. The tested hypar space truss was post-tensioned in the bottom chords of one diagonal. In this paper, the essential characteristics of shape formation are discussed on the basis of a small-scale test model. Results of experimental testing and nonlinear finite element analysis indicate that a planar rectangular layout can be deformed into a pre-determined hypar shape using the shape formation method proposed in this paper. Also the feasibility of the proposed method for constructing a hypar space truss has been presented. It follows that a nonlinear finite element analysis can be used in accurately predicting the behavior of the space truss and the required post-tensioning force. Through ultimate load testing, it is shown that the hypar space truss has significant structural strength.

2. Experimental study on reciprocal prism (RP) grid for space structures
Journal of Constructional Steel Research
Volume 59, Issue 11, November 2003, Pages 1363-1384


Abstract
Laboratory tests on two 8 m×8 m square-on-diagonal alternate reciprocal prism (SoD-ARP) grids have been conducted to verify the accuracy of the analytical model and to study the ultimate strength behaviour of cable-strut structures. Experience learned from the design and construction and issues pertaining to the implementation of such structures are reported. Other issues explored include the suitability of the “butterfly” joint for modular erection and the use of high-tensile rods as “cable” element. The main innovation of the reciprocal prism (RP) grid system is that it extends cable net structures into freestanding grids. It shows promise in having lower weight-to-strength ratio than the conventional space truss systems. These new structural forms have been proven to be structurally more efficient than space truss system for large-span spatial applications.

3. New space truss system—from concept to implementation
Engineering Structures
Volume 22, Issue 9, September 2000, Pages 1070-1085


Abstract
In 1993, and following years of research on the behaviour and economics of space structures, researchers at Dundee University developed a new space truss system called Catrus. The main features of Catrus are its continuous chord members, simple jointing system and ability to work compositely with concrete slabs and timber boards. An extensive research programme over 3 years studied the behaviour of the new system and the effect of the simplifications adopted in forming the joints and connecting the members. Overall, the results obtained indicated a reliable and robust structural behaviour. This paper reports on Catrus, from its development stages to its industrial exploitation.

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mirror link
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#8
Please upload again, Thanks
All links are dead, please upload. Thanks
.
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#9
All links are uploaded

and one new report about space trusses


Collapse behavior of space trusses
by Erling A. Smith
Jule 1982

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#10
Dear members,

Links are dead, i ask for someone to kindly reupload.

regards,
apocalipse
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